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Effects of video games on children

The video game debate

Hundred of pieces of medical and social science research (both published and unpublished) currently address the effects of video games on children. But it is difficult to find objective information about video games when looking at the studies. Personal interests and bias exist throughout the research as those on both sides of video game debate claim that scientific literature supports their opinions. Therefore, we propose to outline four common claims from both sides of the video game debate here to help you make sense of it all.

Types of video games studied

First, it will help to understand the context of the types of video games that researchers are studying. These fall into a few general categories:

1. Pro-social video games – Games in which game characters help and support each other in nonviolent ways.

2. Nonviolent video games – -Games characterized by relatively little or no violence which can include environmental hazards or enemies but are resolved by avoidance or distance or only via violence to non living characters (robots).

3. Violent video games – Games which depict the graphic expression of physical force from character(s) to other(s).

Why are video games bad for kids?

1. Potential for compulsive use or addiction

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The front-striatal neural pathway in the brain (which has been strongly implicated in drug addiction and pathological gambling) is activated during video game play and may reinforce pathological use of this technology. Little is known about how these pathways in the brain mature or how their development is affected by technology use. but it is theorized that excessive video game play can alter some children’s ability to function normally in society (video game addiction).

2. Increase in aggression

Scientists and the general public remain concerned that playing violent video games may increase the risk of aggression in players. However, this correlation remains unclear. Some proponents claim that violent video games stimulate aggression in players in the short run and increase the risk for aggressive behaviors later in life. While others claim that the correlation is weak and not causal.

However, playing violent video games has been seen to increase dehumanization, or the tendency to denying humanness to other people. When dehumanization occurs, a person perceives a victim to be less human and can provoke aggressive behavior. Exposure to violent video games has also been associated with decreases in empathy and prosocial behavior.

3. Increase in food intake

A recent study has shown that a single session of video game play is associated with an increased food intake, without increased sensations of hunger and was not compensated for during the rest of the day. Implications could point to increased weight gain as a result of video game play.

Positive effects of video games on children

1. Improved attention skills

Children who report playing action games show significantly increased attentional skills as compared with those who do not. It also seems that video game use is not a significant predictor of attention problems in children. Instead, other risk factors such as male gender, antisocial traits, family environment and anxiety best predict attention problems.

2. Increased cognition (information processing capabilities)

Playing video games (even violent games) may promote certain positive developments, particularly related to visuospatial information processing. Additionally, increased video game play has also been associated with an improved ability to solve applied problems. In other words, video games can enhance visual perception of spatial relationships among objects.

3. Increased pro-social thoughts

Video games designed to promote behavior change may help children learn healthier behaviors. In one cross-cultural it has been found that exposure to pro-social video games increases the accessibility of pro-social thoughts. Additionally, research has found that educational games and software are effective teaching tools.

More studies video games are good

The video game and technology debate continues

Until scientists establish a direct causal relationship between video game play and behavioral changes, the debate around the pros and cons of playing video games will continue. Where do you sit in this debate? Have you noticed any effects of video games on you or your children? What can and should we, as a society, do to address the negative effects of video games on children? Or are parents alone responsible? Please leave your opinions below.

references: Children, Wired: For Better and For Worse
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011 April
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2011 April;86(4):315-21.
Psychological Science 2011 March
The American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2011 January;40(1):33-8.
The Journal of Social Psychology 2011 Mar-Apr;151(2):121-8.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 2010 December
Psychological Bulletin 2010 March;136(2):151-181.
Psychological Science 2009 May;20(5):594-602.
Pediatrics 2008 Nov;122(5):e1067-72
Psychiatric Quarterly 2007 December;78(4):309-16.

Photo credit: RodrigoFavera

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4 Responses to “Effects of video games on children
Stacy
10:47 pm August 5th, 2011

Playing video games involves several learning correlations that take place oftentimes simultaneously. Gamers are continuously multitasking by which they are managing multiple contexts. Players are making endless judgments whereby they have to evaluate the reliability and credibility of those decisions in order to succeed. The skill development of problem solving is continuous in most complex games. Players are endlessly weighing their options to level up, gain new skills for their avatar or obtain additional weaponry throughout the cycle of playing. In so doing, gamers have to determine the best way to decipher the puzzle presented in the game design to achieve the sought after prize. In Marc Prensky’s book Don’t Bother Me Mom, I’m Learning, he explains that learning while playing video games happens on five different levels and involves complex cognitive thought analysis (64).

yashes vishnu
1:57 pm January 1st, 2013

My seven-year-old got his first video game console for Christmas this year. The first couple of days we let him play without boundaries and he was like a zombie at the screen. It took a day to realize that he had been pausing this game and changing his pants throughout the day. Upon further inspection, he urinated in his pants twice the first day and twice the second day. We then took the console away for a day and the next day we limited it to two half hour sessions. The following day, however, 25 minutes into a session, he urinated again. This makes five times this week that he has urinated in his pants playing this game. All have been while playing this game. For a child who has been potty trained for years, this behavior is very disconcerting to me. Is it possible for a child to be so engrossed in a video game that they pee in their pants?

12:03 pm January 2nd, 2013

Hi Yashes. I’d suggest that you consult your child’s pediatrician immediately. There may be medical reasons for the urination, it may be related to stress or excitement, or he could be totally zoning out while playing. Either way, a pediatrician will be able to consult and advise you on next steps or refer you to information on developmental norms and/or necessary specialists.

Good luck and I hope that this helps!

Thomas
1:59 am December 22nd, 2014

Gaming has severely affected me. I do not believe it improves attention because whenever I am at school I think about games, games, games and therefore do not listen to the words the teacher is speaking. It diminishes eyesight and also causes me to not be sleepy at late night because of just sitting and doing nothing productive. I have not seen any positive sides from gaming so far.

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